Tolkien's cosmology is based on a clear dualism between the spiritual and the material world. While the Ainur, the first created but immaterial angelic beings have the "sub creative" power of imagination, the power to create independent life or physical reality is reserved for Eru Ilúvatar (God); this power of (primary) creation is expressed by the concept of a "Secret Fire" or "Flame Imperishable". The term for the material universe is Eä, "the World that Is", as distinguished from the purely idealist prefiguration of creation in the minds of the Ainur. Eä contains our Earth (and solar system) in a mythical ancient past, of which Middle-earth is the main continent. Eä (Quenya for "let [these things] be!") was the word spoken by Eru Ilúvatar (metaphorically, in the purported Quenya-language account of creation) by which he brought the physical universe into actuality.
What If.....Mordor continued to resist the alliance of men after the destruction of the One Ring?
Varies in each reality
The existence of the full Multiverse is unknown to the general populace of Arda.
Since the One Ring’s destruction in Mount Doom neither Melkor, Sauron nor any Manifestation of the Ring can enter this Universe.
Further information: Ainulindalë
Eru Ilúvatar is the Elvish (Quenya) name of the monotheistic God of creation. Eru means "The One", or "He that is Alone" and Ilúvatar signifies "Father of All". He first created a group of angelic beings, called in Elvish the Ainur, and these holy spirits were co-actors in the creation of the universe through a holy music and chanting called the "Music of the Ainur", or Ainulindalë in Elvish.
Eru alone can create independent life or reality by giving it the Flame Imperishable. All beings not created directly by Eru, (e.g., Dwarves, Ents, Eagles), still need to be accepted by Eru to become more than mere puppets of their creator. Melkor desired the Flame Imperishable and long sought for it in vain, but he could only twist that which had already been given life.
The abode of Eru and the Ainur outside of time or the physical universe is also called the "Timeless Halls" (Heaven). Tolkien made a point of keeping the ultimate fate of the souls of Men and the nature of their mortality open, and unknown to the Elves (who are tied to the physical world for the time of its duration). In the tale of Adanel it is suggested that Men return to Eru after death.
Fëa and hröa
Main article: Fëa and hröa
Further information: Dualism (philosophy of mind)
Fëa and hröa are words for "soul" (or "spirit") and "body" of the Children of Ilúvatar, Elves and Men. Their hröa is made out of the matter of Arda (erma); for this reason hröar are Marred (or contain a "Melkor ingredient"). When an Elf dies, the fëa leaves the hröa, which then "dies". The fëa is summoned to the Halls of Mandos, where it is judged; however as with death their free-will is not taken away, they could refuse the summons. If allowed by Mandos, the fëa may be re-embodied into a new body that is identical to the previous hröa. The situation of Men is different: a Mannish fëa is only a visitor to Arda, and when the hröa dies, the fëa, after a brief stay in Mandos, leaves Arda completely. Originally men could "surrender themselves: die of free will, and even of desire, in estel" but Melkor made Men fear death, instead of accept with joy the Gift of Eru.
See also: Celtic Otherworld
In The Lord of the Rings Tolkien justifies the nature of the Ring by explaining that Elves and other immortal beings dwell in "both worlds" at once (the physical and the spiritual, or Unseen world) and have great power in both, especially those who have dwelt in the light of the Two Trees before the Sun and Moon; and that the powers associated with "magic" were spiritual in nature. Mortals on the other hand are chained to their bodies, have less influence upon them, and their fëa depart the world without them. This posed a problem for immortal beings whose spirits do not wane over time, but become increasingly dependent on their physical bodies.
The Elves who stayed in Middle-earth where Melkor once was dominant, being in bodies and surrounded by things that are themselves Marred and subject to decay by the influence of Melkor, created the Elven Rings out of a desire to preserve the physical world unchanged; as it were in the Undying Lands of Valinor, home of the Valar. Without the rings they are destined to eventually "fade", eventually becoming shadows in the physical world, prefiguring the concept of Elves as dwelling in a separate and often-underground (or overseas) plane in historical European mythology. Mortals who wear a Ring of Power are destined to "fade" much more rapidly, as the rings unnaturally preserve their life-span turning them into wraiths. Invisibility is a side-effect of this, as the wearer is temporarily pulled into the spirit-world. Immortal beings, however, became trapped in their bodies over long periods of time, subject to reincarnation only if their bodies were destroyed.
Eä (Quenya: [ea]) is the Quenya name for the universe as a realization of the vision of the Ainur. The word comes from the Quenya word for to be. Thus, Eä is the World that Is, as distinguished from the World that Is Not. It may thus be assumed that everything outside Eä, including the Timeless Halls, has no material form. The Ainur, angelic beings from the Timeless Halls beyond Eä, refer to it as "the Little Kingdom", because all creation that humans can perceive is tiny in comparison to the mind of Eru Ilúvatar (God). Eä was the word spoken by Eru Ilúvatar by which he brought the universe into actuality.
The Void (also known as Avakúma, Kúma, the Outer Dark, the Eldest Dark, and the Everlasting Dark) is the nothingness outside Arda. From Arda, it is accessible through the Doors of Night.
Avakúma is not to be confused with the state of non-being that preceded the creation of Eä.
The first beings of the universe
Worlds of the Eä
Main article: Arda (Tolkien)
Arda was created to be the "Habitation" (Imbar or Ambar) for the Children of Ilúvatar (Elves and Men).
This world was, at first, not lit by a sun. Instead, the Valar created two lamps to illuminate it: Illuin ('Sky-blue') and Ormal ('High-gold'). To support the lamps, the Vala Aulë forged two enormous pillars of rock: Helcar in the furthest north, and Ringil in the deepest south. Illuin was set upon Helcar and Ormal upon Ringil. Between the columns, where the light of the lamps mingled, the Valar dwelt on the island of Almaren in the midst of a Great Lake.
When Melkor destroyed the Lamps, two vast inland seas (Helcar and Ringil) and two major seas (Belegaer and the Eastern Sea) were created, but Almaren and its lake were destroyed.
The Valar left the mainland, and went to the newly formed continent of Aman in the west, where they created their home called Valinor. To discourage Melkor from assailing Aman, they thrust the continent of Middle-earth to the east, thus widening Belegaer at its middle, and raising five major mountain ranges in Middle-earth: the Blue, Red, Grey, and Yellow Mountains, plus the Mountains of the Wind. This act disrupted the symmetrical shapes of the continents and seas.
Vaiya (also known as Ekkaia, the Enfolding Ocean, and the Encircling Sea) is a dark sea that surrounds the world before the cataclysm at the end of the Second Age. During this flat-Earth period, Vaiya flows completely around Arda, which floats on it like a ship on a sea. Above Vaiya is a layer of atmosphere.
Ulmo the Lord of Waters dwells in Vaiya, underneath Arda. Vaiya is extremely cold; where its waters meet the waters of the ocean Belegaer in the northwest of Middle-earth, a chasm of ice is formed: the Helcaraxë.
Vaiya cannot support any ships except the boats of Ulmo. The ships of the Númenóreans that tried to sail on it sank, drowning the sailors.
The Sun passes through Vaiya on its way around the world, warming it as it passes.
Ilmen is a region of clean air pervaded by light, before the cataclysm at the end of the Second Age. The stars and other celestial bodies are in this region. The Moon passes through Ilmen on its way around the world, plunging down the Chasm of Ilmen on its return.
Fanyamar, Cloudhome—The upper air where clouds form.
Aiwenórë, Bird-land—The lower air where the paths of birds are found.
Vista, Air (the Atmosphere)—Vista is the breathable air.
Stars and planets
Alcarinque, Morwen, Silindo (Jupiter)
Eärendil’s Star, "Gil-Amdir", "Gil-Estel", "Gil-Oresetel", and "Gil-Orrain" - The light of a Silmaril, set on Eärendil's ship Vingilot, represents the planet Venus. The English use of the word "earendel" in the Old English poem Crist I was found by 19th century philologists to be some sort of bright star, and from 1914 Tolkien understood this to mean the morning-star and he also gave the word a capital letter to make it a name. The line éala éarendel engla beorhtast "Hail, Earendel, brightest of angels" was thus Tolkien's inspiration for this part of the legendarium. The Old English phrase is rendered in Quenya as Aiya Eärendil, elenion ancalima! "Hail Eärendil, brightest of stars!".
Helluin, Gil, Nielluin, Nierninwa (Sirius)
Eksiqilta, Ekta (Orion's Belt)
Menelvagor, Daimord, Menelmacar, Mordo, Swordsman of the Sky, Taimavar, Taimondo, Telimbektar, Telimektar, Telumehtar (Orion)—A constellation meant to represent Túrin Turambar and his eventual return to defeat Melkor in The Last Battle. Menelmacar superseded the older form, Telumehtar (which nonetheless continued in use), and was itself adopted into Sindarin as Menelvagor.
Remmirath, Itselokte, Sithaloth, (Pleiades)
Valacirca, the Sickle of the Valar, Burning Briar, Durin’s Crown, Edegil, Otselen, the Plough, Seven Stars, Seven Butterflies, Silver Sickle, Timbridhil, (Ursa Major / Big Dipper)—An important constellation of seven stars set in the sky by Vardaas an enduring warning to Melkor and his servants, and which precipitated the Awakening of the Elves. It also formed the symbol of Durin, seen on the doors of Moria, and inspired a song of defiance from Beren. According to The Silmarillion it was set in the Northern Sky as a sign of doom for Melkor and a sign of hope for the Elves. The Valacirca is one of the few constellations named in the book, another significant one being Menelmacar.
Wilwarin (generally held to be Cassiopeia)
(n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekkaia
Tolkien Mythology | The One Wiki To Rule Them All | Fandom ...(n.d.). Retrieved from http://lotr.wikia.com/wiki/Tolkien_Mythology
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